Table of Contents
An opening statement
What is Acid rain?
Acid Rain’s Effect
Streams, lakes, and ponds
Human Health: Acid Rain Causes Pollutants
Acid Rain Effects on Manmade Materials
What is being done?
This is an introductory piece of writing which provides an overview of what is to follow.
Pollution is a result of many human activities including the burning fossil fuels. Pollution is when harmful substances are released into the environment. The polluting effects of fossil fuels are not permanent. It can travel long distances before it settles on the ground again as rain or dust. Deposition is when airborne pollutants and chemicals are dropped to the Earth.
Acid rain is formed when rain that has not been contaminated with any pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides(NOx). While carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are naturally found in the atmosphere, the addition of fossil fuels to the atmosphere increases their levels. These pollutants can react with water and oxygen to make acid rain. Acid rain, which is any precipitation that has unusually high levels of hydrogen ions, falls to Earth. It can cause damage to plants, animals, and infrastructure.
Acid rain is caused by air pollution. Scientists discovered that acid rain is caused by air pollution. Electricity is produced by factories using natural gas, oil, and coal to generate electricity. The gasoline fossil fuel is used to power cars, trucks, and aircrafts. These pollutants react with moisture in the atmosphere to create acid rain.
Acid rain is caused by sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Acid rain forms in clouds, where NOx and SO2 react with oxygen and water. This results in sulfuric acid and then nitric acid. Sunlight accelerates these reactions, increasing the acid level in the atmosphere. The acid rain is formed when precipitation, such as snow, rain, or fog, mixes with the sulfuric, nitric, and air acids.
Acid rain can cause significant forest damage. Acid rain directly damages trees and other plants that are essential to the ecosystem. Photosynthesis is a process by which organisms produce their own food using sunlight to generate energy. It involves a series chemical reactions that convert water and sugar into sugar. This ability is shared by some microscopic creatures and plants. Because they are food sources for all living things and important habitats for animals, plants are crucial to ecosystems. Acid rain can cause damage to trees and plants that has a ripple effect on the ecosystem.
Acid rain slows down trees in forests and can cause some species to lose their leaves and needles. Acid rain can cause severe damage to Red Spruce (or Sugar Maple) trees, which are mainly found in the East and New England. Acid rain causes trees to be damaged by dissolving calcium in soil and leaves. Because calcium is essential for trees to grow, acid rain can cause damage. Rain washes away calcium and makes it impossible for trees to use. Acid rain also removes nutrients and minerals from soil, which can lead to Nutrient Deficit. Acid rain can make trees grow slower because of this. Trees and plants can also be affected by nutrient deficiencies.
Trees are more susceptible to cold if they lack nutrients. A tree in good health and well-nourished will be able to survive even the coldest winter. But a tree already suffering from a mineral shortage can become severely ill and eventually die. Plants and trees that are weaker are more susceptible to disease and insects. Acid rain can also cause soil to release substances like aluminium. Aluminium can cause severe damage to trees and plants. Aluminium can leach from soil into rivers, streams and lakes. This can lead to the death or ill health of fish. Aluminium is released less when it rains more.
Acid rain can also produce haze because it scatters light back towards nature. Haze decreases the amount light that plants can use for photosynthesis. Acid rain can disrupt photosynthesis, which is the foundation of the food web. Acid fogs are another factor that can reduce photosynthesis. Fog is often more acidic than rain. Acid fog can cause leaves to lose their protective waxy coating.
This coating can cause brown spots on the leaves. The leaves lose the ability to photosynthesis, which converts sunlight into energy for food. The tree cannot sustain itself if the leaves are damaged.
Streams, Lakes, and PondsThe most noticeable effects of acid precipitation are seen in aquatic environments like streams or lakes. After falling onto forests, buildings, trees and roads, acid rainfall flows to streams, marshes, and lakes. Acid rain can also directly affect aquatic habitats. The pH of most lakes and streams is between 6-8 because soil’s buffering power can neutralize mildly acidic rain. When rainwater is too acidic for the soil to buffer it, lakes and streams can become acidic.
Because of this, lakes found in areas without a lot soil buffering are naturally acidic. Acid rain has made pH values below 5 in some areas, including the Northeastern United States.
As streams and lakes become acidic, more fish species and aquatic plants are affected. Some animals and plants can tolerate the acidic environment. Others are more sensitive and will not tolerate an acidic environment. Acidic lakes do not have fish as fish cannot hatch at pH 5. At lower pH levels, adult fish can die. The soil may also contain aluminium which can cause fish to die.
Acid rain can cause pollution to humans. Acid rain tastes, looks and feels exactly like rain. Acid rain is not more hazardous than swimming in clean water. But, breathing in acid rain-causing pollutants can cause serious health problems. Our lungs can become irritated by or even destroyed by particulate matter (SO2), nitrogen oxides(NOx), sulphur dioxide and ozone. Although these effects are most common in those with compromised lungs, even healthy individuals can experience pain and difficulty breathing due to air pollution.
Air pollution is the main cause of ozone, particularly in summer. There have been many health problems linked to excessive ozone exposure. Ozone can worsen respiratory conditions like asthma, emphysema and bronchitis. Ozone can also affect the ability of your respiratory system to fight against bacterial infections. Even healthy people may experience symptoms like coughing and chest tightness. Ozone can lead to permanent lung damage and even death. Particulate matter is made up of small particles, also known as particulate matter. The lungs are also affected by particulate matter.
Particulate matter is small particles of dust. These tiny particles can become trapped deep inside the lungs and cause irritation. Acid rain pollutants, SO2 and NOx can also cause visibility to be reduced, which can limit how far we can see. These pollutants create small particles in our atmosphere. These particles scatter light, which reduces visibility. You can notice the reduction in visibility most clearly in National Parks. Here, you can enjoy some of America’s most beautiful landscapes.
Acid Rain’s Effects on Man-Made Materials. Acid rain can eat away at metal, stone, and paint. Acid rain accelerates the process of human-made materials. Acid rain can cause marble statues that were carved centuries ago to lose their details. This is because marble is composed of calcium carbonate. Acids can dissolve it.
Limestone also contains calcium carbonate. Acid rain can cause destruction to many monuments and buildings made of limestone and marble. Repairing damage caused by acid rain to monuments and buildings can cost billions. Historic buildings and monuments, like the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., cannot be repaired.
What are the Other Sources of Energy? These include hydroelectric, wind, nuclear, solar, and fuel cell power. Hydroelectric dams use water power to turn rurbines into electricity. The same principle applies to windmills, except that they use the wind instead of water to turn turbines.
For centuries, people have used wind and water power. Through the splitting of tiny atoms within nuclear reactors, nuclear power plant extracts energy. Although nuclear power plants produce hazardous waste, a small amount could make a large amount electricity. Solar power, also known as power from the Sun, is another method of producing electricity. Some homes heat water from the sun to make hot showers. Traffic signs even use solar panels. Fuel cells can be thought of as batteries. However, they are powered by hydrogen and oxygen. They are able to create electricity using chemical reactions and also produce water as a waste. Each source of energy has its benefits and drawbacks, as well as the costs involved in producing it. These factors need to be taken into consideration when choosing which energy source you will use.
Conclusion: Natural and man-made catastrophes can cause harm to our environment and human rights. Acid rain, for example, can be caused by human error and have serious consequences. They shouldn’t happen if you are vigilant. The man-made nature of natural disasters is different from natural disasters.