Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds are covalently linked compounds that contain carbon. Catenation is the ability of carbon atoms to bond with other elements. This allows them to form long chains and rings by covalently binding to each other. Carbon atoms have the ability to bond to other elements that share similar electronegativities. These elements are the components of organic compounds.

Hydrocarbons consist of just carbon and hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain four covalent bonds between each carbon atom and other atoms. Alkanes contain single bonds only. The carbon-hydrogen bonds in alkanes do not have polarity. There are no forces that can attract nonpolar molecules. At room temperature, gases include methane, ethanes, propane, butane, and methyl. Pentane is a liquid at room temperature. Octane, decane, and pentane are also liquids. Heptadecane or eicosane can be solids at room temperatures.

Cycloalkanes refer to alkanes where the carbon atoms have a ring structure, or cyclic.

Fractional distillation uses vapor condensation to separate components from a mixture. The octane ratings of fuels are a measure of their burning efficiency as well as antiknock characteristics. The octane rating scale is based on mixtures of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, isooctane. Pure 2,2,4-trimethypentane is very resistant to knocking and is assigned an octane number of 100. Pure heptane is a low-octane gas and can be knocked a lot. To increase octane rating, you can increase gasoline’s branched-chain alcohols.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons hydrocarbons that do not have all four covalent bonds are hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons that have double covalent links are called alkenes.

Alkenes can be nonpolar and exhibit similar properties to alkanes. -farnesene is composed of 15 carbon atoms as well as 4 double bonds. It is stable at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It can be found in natural waxes on apples. Ethene can be found in the largest amount of hydrocarbons in the United States. It is used to synthesize many important and useful alcohols. Ethene also plays a significant role in the production of plant hormones.

Triple covalent bonds in hydrocarbons are called alkynes. This triple bond is required for the simplest alkyne to have only two carbon-atoms.

Alkynes are like other hydrocarbons in that they have similar boiling points and physical properties. They also exhibit nonpolarity. A gas is the smallest alkyne, which is ethyne. When ethyne is burned in combination with pure oxygen, it produces intense heat that can be used to create welding torch flames. These welding torches, also known as oxyacetylene or acetylene torches, are common names for ethyne.

Aromatic hydrocarbons include hydrocarbons containing six-membered carbon rings with delocalized electrons. Benzene, the principal aromatic hydrocarbon, is it.

Benzene rings possess a very high chemical stability. This can be explained with the concept that delocalized elements are responsible. Alkenes and alkynes react less with aromatic hydrocarbons than they do with alkenes, alkynes, and other hydrocarbons. Because of its stability, benzene was once used as a nonpolar solvent. Benzene is a poisonous and carcinogen. It is nonpolar so it is not easily dissolved in water. A third aromatic hydrocarbon, 3,4benzpyrene, can be found in coal-tar, tar from smoking, and soot in urban areas with high levels of pollution. Studies have shown that this compound can cause cancer.

An organic compound that contains one or more of the hydroxyl groups is called an alcohol. A functional group is used to describe a class of organic compound. The letter R stands for the remainder of a molecule. The R-OH formula is the most common for alcohols. Below are formulae for alkanes and alcohols.






Liquefied petroleum gas

Sometimes, alcohols can be used in today’s automobile fuel as an alternative fuel or as octane-enhancing agents. Ethanol can be mixed with gasoline to make gasohol. To some degree, all simple alcohols can be poisonous. Alcohol dehydrogenase is responsible for breaking down ethanol after it has been consumed. Alcohol dehydrogenase attacks simpler alcohols less quickly, making them more poisonous than ethanol. Formic acid and formaldehyde are both toxic forms of methanol (or wood alcohol). Methanol can also cause harm to the optic nervous system, coma, or even death.

Alkylhalides can be organic compounds where one or more halogenatoms, such as chlorine, bromine, bromine or fluorine, are substituted for hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbons. An alkylhalide can be represented using the formula R-X, as X can often be used to signify any halogen. The formula for trichlorofluoromethane is:

The chlorine atoms released into the atmosphere attack O3 molecules. Diatomic oxygen is formed from the ozone. This allows a single chlorine-atom to kill thousands of ozone molecules. Tetrafluoroethene, another alkylhalide, is also available. To make Teflon-branded material, it is joined in long chains. Its formula, C2F4, is its.

Two hydrocarbons groups bond to one atom of oxygen in ethers, which are organic compounds. You can represent them by the general formula R.O.R’. Methyl-tertiary-butyl (MTBE) ether is the most widely used ether. Another gasoline octane-enhancing agent is it.

Aldehydes can be organic compounds where the carbonyl groups are attached to carbon atoms at the ends of a carbon-atom chains. Ketones organic compounds are those in which the carbonyl atoms of the chain are attached to them.

Here’s an example of a correctly-named aldehyde, and a correctly-named ketone:

Methanal is the most basic aldehyde. It was used as a preservative in animal death chambers. Its main commercial use is in plastic production. 2 propanone, also known as acetone, is the simplest ketone. Acetone is used in nail-polish removers to dissolve organic substances in nail polish. Aldehydes, ketones and other compounds are often responsible for unpleasant odors or flavors.

Carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains the carboxyl functional groups. The following formula can be used:

One of the most correctly-named carboxylic acids is:

There are many carboxylic acid species that can be found naturally in animals and plants. Citric acid is one example. To give food an acidic or tart flavor, carboxylic acids can also be used. Preservatives that kill microorganisms can be found in sorbic, propanoic orbenzoic acids.

Esters can be organic compounds with carboxylic acids groups where the hydrogen in the hydroxyl is replaced by an Alkyl group. An ester can be described as:

There are two examples for esters correctly named here:

Many plants contain esters which give off distinctive aromas and flavors. Artificial flavoring can also be made from isoamyl-acetate (found in bananas).

Amines can be described as organic compounds that are derivatives of ammonia. The following formula can be used to determine the general formula:

The correct name for an amine is:

Butrachotoxinin (A) is a toxic chemical amine that kills neurons and is made by a poison-dart frog.

Alkaloids can be defined as naturally occurring amines that have physiological effects upon animals. Some examples of alkaloids are nicotine, coniine, caffeine and morphine.

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